2019 California Urban Forests Conference

CMG Landscape Designer, Kate Lenahan, traveled to San Luis Obispo September 26-28 to attend the 2019 California Urban Forests Conference. This year’s conference discussed the impacts of climate change on urban forests and the urban lumber industry–  presenting current research on climate-appropriate tree selection, urban canopy management, and wood reuse in California. As CMG works to capture more carbon, understanding what species and planting strategies will be most climate adaptive and carbon positive will be key to balancing our projects’ emissions in the future.

Day 1 of the conference focused on climate change and the urban forest, examining the effects of projected shifts in heat, drought, and accompanying pests on trees in California’s cities, as well as the communities that most need them. Presentations by Drs. Matt Ritter and Igor Lacan underscored that careful tree selection today will be critical to maintaining a healthy urban forest under increasingly stressful conditions. Lacan and McBride’s work on space-for-time substitution outlines a framework to project climate and species shifts in California cities, using the canopies of warmer cities to anticipate which common species will not tolerate future conditions.1 The loss of trees will be greatest inland, where temperatures are projected to rise more than on the coast. Planting urban forests with greater biodiversity now, argues Dr. Ritter, may protect against their decline over time. Out of 60,065 tree species in the world, only approximately 1.7% of them are selected for urban forests.2 If many of California’s common urban tree species will no longer be suitable in a warmer climate, there’s a good chance that others–represented in this uncaptured biodiversity–will be successful. “Common garden” studies through UC Davis are ongoing to test urban-appropriate trees for California’s future cities.

Day 2 focused on the urban lumber industry, picking up where Friday’s foresters left off, addressing the end of life uses of our cities’ trees. Most often, removed trees are trucked to landfills or ground for mulch. Although mulch releases some carbon to the soil, most carbon stored in mulch wood is eventually emitted back tot he atmoshere as it decomposes. Dr. Sam Sherrill explained that every year, and estimated back to the atmosphere as it decomposes. Dr. Sam Sherrill explained that every year, as estimated 3 to 4 billion board feet of wood are disposed in these ways3, representing approximately 7.1-9.5 million tons of carbon. Urban lumber offers an alternative; recycling trees as hardwood products like architectural finishes and site elements could retain a significant store of carbon, stored as long as these products exist. In 2017, buildings accounted for 44% of San Francisco’s GHG emissions, or 2.2 million tons4 (for comparison, the average car emits 5.1 tons of carbon dioxide annually). As the California urban lumber industry organizes and develops standards, it could become a powerful tool for designers of the built environment to offset construction impacts.

  1. McBride, Joe, and Lacan, Igor. “The impact of climate-change induced temperature increases on the suitability of street tree species in California (USA) cities.” Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 2018. 34, 348-356. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1618866718300013
  2. Ritter, Matt. “California Tree Selection: Factors to Consider in an Era of Climate Chaos and Decreasing Diversity.” 2019 California Urban Forests Conference, 27 Sept. 2019, Ludwick Community Center, San Luis Obispo, CA. Conference Presentation.
  3. Sherrill, Sam. “Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Storage in Wood Products.” 2019 California Urban Forests Conference, 27 Sept. 2019, Ludwick Community Center, San Luis Obispo, CA. Conference Presentation.
  4. San Francisco Department of the Environment. “San Francisco’s Carbon Footprint.” Accessed 7 Oct. 2019. https://sfenvironment.org/carbonfootprint

Landscape Architects Rise to The Climate Crisis

September 30, 2019 – A month of the largest collective climate activist events in history culminates with the launch of the Climate Positive Design Challenge that enables the global landscape architecture profession to take climate action. The Challenge establishes targets for reducing emissions and sequestering carbon in the built environment, with a goal of going ‘beyond neutral’ – sequestering more carbon than emitted and providing a positive contribution towards reversing global warming. The Challenge is part of an initiative that includes tools landscape architects can use today.

“Landscape architecture is the only design profession that can not only reduce emissions but also increase carbon sequestration,” says Pamela Conrad, Principal of CMG Landscape Architecture and founder of the initiative. “To date, we have not had the tools, guidance, or resources to make this contribution. With these now in place, it is time that we rise to the climate crisis. It is not only an opportunity to reimagine how we design our world from every aspect, but a responsibility.”

Conrad is a 2018-2019 Landscape Architecture Foundation (LAF) Fellow for Innovation and Leadership. The Climate Positive Design initiative is the product of years of research and collaboration with Atelier Ten. Designers can meet the goals of the Challenge by logging projects into a web-based application called the Pathfinder. The app encourages design strategies that sequester more CO2 than they emit – becoming Climate Positive.


The Climate Positive Design Challenge provides guidance for improving the impact of site design projects on the environment.

The goal is for global landscape architecture projects to collectively sequester more carbon than emitted between now and 2030. If the targets are continuously met, the profession has the opportunity to remove one gigaton of CO2 from the atmosphere beyond project emissions by the year 2050.

The targets establish the maximum number of years it should take a project to offset carbon emissions based on CMG project case studies. A target of five years is suggested to offset carbon footprints for greener projects like parks, gardens, campuses, and mixed-use developments. For more urban projects that require a greater amount of hardscape to accommodate programming, twenty years is the targeted offset duration. The case study analysis revealed that the targets could be met without changing the program or reducing the quality – the projects merely became greener.

Initially, all who log a project in the app will be recognized as contributors on the Climate Positive Design website. Data will be collected over time to evaluate how the Challenge goals are being met, which will be reviewed by advisory partners including the LAF, American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA), Canadian Society of Landscape Architects (CSLA), International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA), and the Landscape Architecture Canada Foundation (LACF).


A web-based app called the Pathfinder is a landscape carbon calculator that guides designers on the path to meeting the goals of the Challenge and becoming Climate Positive. The user is directed to input the following quantities:

  • Sources. This includes approximately eighty different types of materials used in landscape projects such as paving, walls, fences etc. and their associated ‘embodied carbon’ from extraction, manufacturing, transportation, installation, use/maintenance and replacement. The data is derived from the Athena Impact Estimator.
  • Sinks. Trees, plants, wetlands and certain types of meadows/lawns capture CO2 from the atmosphere and sink carbon into the soil. All data used for calculating sequestration and decomposition for trees and shrubs is obtained from the US Forest Service.
  • Costs. Carbon Costs represent emissions associated with mowing/pruning performed using machinery and fertilizer use for trees and shrubs. These emissions occur regularly over the lifespan of the project and are often referred to as ‘operational carbon’.

After the user inputs quantities, they receive a Climate Positive score that indicates how many years it will take to offset the project’s carbon footprint. To lower the score, the user receives design recommendations to reduce emissions and increase sequestration, thus offsetting their project faster and providing a positive contribution to reducing global greenhouse gas concentrations sooner. Each user has a project page where data from projects is stored and can be revisited. A scorecard is provided with project details including total carbon emitted, stored and years to offset, with a purpose of further understanding and sharing with others.

“Many of the challenges surrounding the climate crisis are around communication and education. Everyone wants to help, but they don’t quite know what to do,” Conrad states. “It is my goal to make climate smart decisions easy to do and easy to communicate. Then maybe, just maybe, we’ll be able to make a difference.”


The Climate Positive Design initiative is founded with a goal of empowering landscape architects, property owners, municipalities, and related disciplines to take climate action. By providing tools, guidance, and resources the initiative seeks to enable positive changes that can be made now and do not require new regulations or policies – merely activism through education. Beyond the Pathfinder, the website provides additional educational resources including a Design Toolkit and Case Studies that assist with making Climate Positive Design decisions.

“These impacts will only be possible if we all work together,” Conrad says. “That is why over the past couple of years I have been bringing everyone possible into this initiative – from organizations, to schools, to firms. We need to drop our competitive tendencies, utilize the strengths of different groups, and work together for this one cause – for the challenge of our lifetime.”

Conrad has been spreading this message around the world, from publications including Landscape-Paysages Magazine, CityLab, ASLA’s The Dirt and The Field, World Landscape Architect, Landscape + Urbanism, and Urban Choreography blogs, America Adapts podcast, universities including UC Berkeley, Cal Poly Pomona, Harvard Graduate School of Design, to speaking events for the Global Climate Action Summit in San Francisco, California, the World Design Summit in Montreal, Canada, IFLA World Congress in Singapore, IFLA World Council in Oslo, Norway, Rescape Sacramento and San Jose, and ASLA Conferences in Los Angeles and Philadelphia.

CMG Landscape Architecture is incorporating the initiative into its practice and invites firms around the world to join them.

To learn more about Climate Positive Design go to www.ClimatePositiveDesign.com


Pamela Conrad, PLA, ASLA, LEED AP | Climate Positive Design Founder, CMG Principal and landscape architect, practicing for fifteen years on a wide range of domestic and international landscape architecture projects. Pamela’s work focuses on climate change mitigation and adaptation.

CMG Landscape Architecture | CMG is a mission-oriented urban design and landscape architecture firm working to increase social and ecological well-being through artful design, based in San Francisco, CA.

Atelier Ten | Environmental consultants providing expertise on carbon strategy and alignment with industry standards.

Landscape Architecture Foundation (LAF) | LAF’s mission is to support the preservation, improvement and enhancement of the environment. The initiative is an outcome of the LAF Fellowship for Leadership and Innovation. Martha Schwartz, FASLA, Hon RIBA, Hon RDI, is a member of the LAF Climate Change Task Force and is an advisor to the initiative.

American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) | ASLA’s mission is to advance landscape architecture through advocacy, communication, education, and fellowship. Vaughn Rinner, PLA, FASLA, former ASLA President, is a member of ASLA’s Blue Ribbon Panel on Climate Change and an advisor to the initiative.

Canadian Society of Landscape Architects (CSLA) | The CSLA is an advocate for Canadian landscape architecture professionals on issues such as urban design, urban renewal, sustainable development, climate change, and cultural heritage. Colleen Mercer Clarke, APALA, CSLA, is the chair of the CSLA Committee on Climate Adaptation and an advisor to the initiative.

International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA) | IFLA is an organization which represents the landscape architectural profession globally. It aims to provide leadership and networks to support the development of the profession and its effective participation in the realization of attractive, equitable and sustainable environments. Colleen Mercer Clarke is the chair of the Climate Change Working Group.

Landscape Architecture Canada Foundation (LACF) | The LACF is a national charitable organization with a primary goal of supporting the fundamental ideas expressed through the profession of landscape architecture.


Climate Positive Design Challenge

















The Challenge is a call to action for landscape architects, municipalities, property owners, developers, and associated professionals around the world to reduce carbon footprints and
increase carbon sequestration.

The goal is for all landscape architecture projects going forward to collectively sequester more CO2 than they emit by 2030, with a target of removing one gigaton of CO2 from the atmosphere by 2050.

To meet the goals of the challenge, an online app called the Pathfinder guides designers towards a path of being Climate Positive – sequestering more carbon than their projects emit, ultimately
making a positive contribution to reversing global warming.


The initiative is led by Pamela Conrad, Principal at CMG Landscape Architecture and developed through the Landscape Architecture Foundation (LAF) Fellowship for Innovation and Leadership
in collaboration with
Atelier Ten. LAF, the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA), Canadian Society of Landscape Architects (CSLA), International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA), and the Landscape Architecture Canada Foundation (LACF) have
signed on as advisory partners to the initiative. 

The launch comes at an important moment in the rise of climate action advocacy. This week Conrad will announce the launch at the Designing a Green New Deal event in Philadelphia,
and also at
Common Ground, the IFLA World Congress 2019 meeting in Oslo, Norway. On September 20, CMG will join the San Francisco contingent of the Global Climate Action Strike .

On September 27, the Pathfinder tool will go live and all Challenge contributions will be recorded and recognized for taking climate action. CMG has committed to the Challenge and is integrating Climate Positive Design into its practice.




Sign-up to receive notification of the official launch.





“What’s Out There Weekend” San Francisco Bay Area

CMG Landscape Architecture is a proud sponsor of The Cultural Landscape Foundation’s (TCLF) ‘What’s Out There Weekend San Francisco Bay Area”, on September 14-15, 2019. CMG Principals, Chris Guillard, Jamie Phillips, and Willett Moss will be participating and speaking about their work on Daggett Park, Crissy Field Next, and Civic Center Public Space Design, respectively.

“What’s Out There” provides free tours to the public, led by experts in their field! The tour includes dozens of sites, including gardens, campuses, plazas, public parks, and cultural institutions. The goal of these free tours is to inform people about the design history of places they may pass everyday but don’t necessarily know well.

To register for a free tour and learn about the schedule, click here!


1-3pm: Crissy Field and Tunnel Tops (San Francisco) | Claire Mooney (GGNPC) and Michael Boland (Presidio Trust), Jamie Phillips (CMG Landscape Architecture)

1:30-3pm: Civic Center Plaza (San Francisco) | John Dennis (SF Public Works), Nicholas Perry (SF Planning), Jorgen Cleeman (SF Planning) and Emily Rylander (Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture), Willett Moss (CMG Landscape Architecture)


3:30-5pm: Warriors Stadium and Mission Bay public spaces and Daggett Park (San Francisco) | Rene Bihan (SWA) and Chris Guillard (CMG Landscape Architecture)

CMG 2019 Summer Interns Experience

Through the course of their 3 month internship, the CMG summer interns were able to participate in site visits to Crissy Field, Bothin Marsh, Treasure Island, and more! On their last day, the summer interns presented their research and findings to the entire office. The CMG Summer Interns, Sarah Fitzgerald, Jeff Milla, and Yutong Wu reflect on their summer internship project “Emergent Ecologies of the Bay Edge: Adaptation to Climate Change and Sea Level Rise”, writing about their experience over the course of 3 months of research and traveling around the Bay Area.

From getting our hands dirty identifying marsh plants at Crissy Field to spotting a sea otter munching on oysters near a Living Shorelines restoration site at Point San Pablo, our summer research was grounded in our experiences visiting iconic landscapes across the Bay. These site visits were crucial to informing our understanding of Bay ecologies, and reflecting CMG’s recognition that there is no substitute for experiencing a place firsthand.

Though it’s hard to pick a favorite site, we all agreed that visiting Marin and seeing Bothin Marsh and Corte Madera Marsh was a uniquely noteworthy experience. In preparation for the visit we had poured over sea level rise projection maps of the area, cynically concluding that it was not the best use of our time and money to try to save wetlands that will be inundated with just one foot of sea level rise. And yet, as soon as our bikes rolled up to the edge of Coyote Creek, we were awestruck by the beauty of Bothin Marsh. There are few places in the Bay where you can walk through a living marsh. We all felt the power of the wetland landscape surrounding us on all sides. Site visits like these led us to conclude that, while we can’t save every marsh from rising tides, we must find a regional framework to help adapt at least a few.

Another site visit that really hit home was our trip to Treasure Island and visiting Ildiko Polony at the LEJ nursery. As a native plant horticulturalist, we were interested in getting her take on how to work with native plants as temperatures, rainfall, fog regimes, and other climate factors to which native plants are adapted begin to change. We had previously come across a USGS study predicting that California will have no marshes left by the end of the century, and were quite dismayed by this and similar dire studies. Ildiko’s response was stoic and poetic: “When I become overwhelmed with all of the terrible predictions, I like to remind myself that they are still only predictions. We have to focus on building landscape corridors that allow plants to possibility to adapt and move by themselves, instead of replacing native plants with those found in ecosystems farther south. And plus, though the marshes might not be here in 100 years, they still matter for the bees, the birds, and the fish that are here today, tomorrow, and in a year’s time. We can still do a lot of good with the time we have.”

In addition to our site visits, our in-office research days enabled us to dive deep into the science and processes of ecological change. We studied the marsh migration process by which upland will convert to marshes, marshes to mudflats, and mudflats to subtidal habitat; we probed the physics of land subsidence and discovered how filled land subsides at a much faster rate than the historical shoreline; we analyzed the Bay on a region scale to discover where tactics like ecotone levees, near-shore reefs, or elevating land might be appropriate adaptation techniques. Ultimately, we compiled a matrix summarizing the various landscape tactics we encountered, cataloguing a toolkit of methods for responding to SLR.

By the conclusion of our internship, we had come to appreciate the simple truth that adapting the existing ecologies of the Bay to the rising tides is possible, but incredibly costly. Ultimately, we leave this project with more questions than answers:

  • How can we make collective decisions about which habitats to focus on?
  • How can we pool our resources to make regional decisions, rather than only disjointed local actions?
  • How can we ensure that socially vulnerable human communities can access these fast-disappearing natural wonders?
  • How can we move from designing at the discrete site scale to a regional level? Is this shift even possible in a paradigm of client-driven work?

We also recognize that landscape architects must become more proficient in our understanding of ecological processes and climate science in order to stay relevant as climate change accelerates. We humbly hope that this research contributes to this proficiency within CMG, and that it is useful in informing the firm’s future work.

 On August 9th, CMG’s summer interns presented their final research project, “Emergent Ecologies of the Bay Edge: Adaptation to Climate Change and Sea Level Rise”, to the rest of the office at lunch! A culmination of their work this summer, the research focused on how designers must anticipate fast-changing conditions and design toward adapting to and mitigating the effect of climate change.




Pacific Northwest Fisheries and the Impacts of a Changing Climate Van Alen Climate Council Trip – Summer 2019

What would make a group of engineers, architects and landscape architects travel from around the country to visit the fishing industry in the Pacific Northwest? Well, beyond tasty seafood dinners and extremely fresh oysters, the answer lies with a collective drive to understand the causes and impacts of a changing climate.

The Van Alen Climate Council convened for their third investigative trip in August to continue researching connections between climate change and design. This trip brought the group into the Pacific Northwest, shifting from the agricultural cornucopia of California’s Central Valley to one of the largest fishing industries in the world located in and around the Puget Sound in Washington.

Pamela Conrad, CMG Principal, joined the Council in early 2019, and shares insights from the multi-disciplinary excursion:

What are some of the issues impacting the Pacific Northwest Fishing Industry?

Global fish populations and the fishing industry face great threats due to a changing world. 

Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is absorbed by water but increased levels of CO2 create toxic levels of ocean acidification, CO2 + H20 = H2CO3 (carbonic acid). When there is too much carbonic acid in the water, shellfish are unable to form shells and reproductive problems occur in a variety of other fish species.  

That same increase of CO2 causes higher atmospheric and ocean temperatures. Warmer water temperatures lead to the decline of fish populations and water molecule expansion is causing sea level rise. (Ice melt is also causing sea levels rise, but currently at a less predictable rate)

Warmer temperatures means there is less snow forming, and therefore less snow melt. The low running rivers are too shallow for salmon to migrate and swim up-stream and spawn, which is contributing to their population decline. Sedimentation caused by adjacent land impacts such as construction or mining operations also contribute to this issue.

Human consumption is also a major threat. The World Resources Institute published global research in 2016 showing that people eat more protein than they need. In fact, most protein that the human body needs can come from plant-based proteins and in the US & Canada, we are eating three times more animal-based protein than we need (World Resources Institute, 2016). This overconsumption is another contributing factor to the fish population declines.

Why does it matter?

These issues affect everyone. The indigenous tribes of the Pacific Northwest now have less available food resources, lower incomes and are being forced to relocate their coastal tribal homes. This is not something that will happen in the future, it is happening now.

What is the Pacific Northwest doing that is innovative in response to these issues?

A sustainable sushi bar in West Seattle called Mashiko is serving up what they call “trash fish” to help alleviate the demand on at-risk species. Typically, fish accidently caught in nets cast for a more in-demand species are discarded but Mashkiko takes these fish and transforms them into tasty meals. High demand seafood are the ones we all know and love – salmon, yellowfin tuna, shrimp etc. However, due to the demand, these species are overfished and are at-risk. In the case of shrimp, not only are they coming from unsustainable sources, but also a slave-labor industry thousands of miles away. So, be brave, instead of ordering your “go-to”, request the local special instead. You might be surprised at how good “trash fish” can taste.

To help prevent the effects of ocean acidification, researchers at the University of Washington supported by the Paul Allen Family Foundation are studying how kelp farming can help extract CO2 out of the oceans. Kelp farming could also provide a viable source of biofuel for jets. Other “blue carbon” environments include sea grasses such as eel grass and salt marshes which are found here in the San Francisco Bay area, along with mangroves that typically occur in more tropical environments.

Habitats also need to be restored before fish populations can recover. The Seattle Waterfront Vision is being constructed with light wells to encourage salmon migration and food source habitat. Because of tremendous public support for an environmentally innovative and high quality public realm, private philanthropy contributed millions of dollars to the project that shows increased salmon migration since completion.

Communication is also key to the climate crisis, and doesn’t have to come directly from scientists or researchers. One PNW artist, David Eisenhour, has dedicated time and resources to his art in hopes of helping to educate others on the impact of carbon on our environment.

What can landscape architects do about it?

Our projects, our offices, and the way we live our lives has an associated carbon footprint. If we can reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere through conscious decisions about those choices we make, we can:

  • reduce increased rates of ocean acidification that is impacting the fishing industry.
  • reduce the intensity of sea level rise, community displacement, and fish population decline.

When we put chemicals on the land, they end up in the water and harm fish populations. Using organic fertilizers on landscapes prevents harmful nitrate migration into our waterways.

In coastal projects we design, we can improve the public experience while improving habitat for the marine environment. They can go hand in hand, and in Seattle, the public is demanding it. What we put into the air and on the land is impacting our oceans. The sooner we recognize how the systems of the earth are connected, the sooner we can get ourselves out of this mess.   


Related links:

How Ocean Acidification Affects Seafood Security in Puget Sound



Jamie Phillips Attends Futurescaping at UBC Okanagan

Principal, Jamie Phillips, was invited to attend Futurescaping: A Practitioner’s Retreat on July 18th at University of British Columbia Okanagan (UBCO), a gathering of future-interested professionals to engage in out-of-the-box thinking about the future of a place and its broader socio-cultural, economic and ecological context. With the intent of exploring the “Next Generation” Future at UBCO, here are some of the questions that will be discussed:

  • What broad trends and forces are “in play” (eg: biophysical, socio-economic, political, cultural, socio-technical, institutional) and likely to shape Future UBCO? (i.e. prediction, foresight)
  • What is the full potential UBCO campus by 2040? 2050?
  • What might a future UBCO do?
  • What might it look like?
  • What strategies might be the most effective?

This is an invite-only discussion, Jamie Phillips being the sole landscape architect, on the potential future growth and evolution of the University of British Columbia Okanagan campus as a leader for world change. The campus is interested in pushing creativity, place-creation, research excellence, and sustainable initiatives!

Pamela Conrad Attends Van Alen Climate Council Trip in Seattle

Principal, Pamela Conrad joins Van Alen Climate Council Institute for the second time this year on July 17-19 in Seattle, to examine the impact fisheries have on food systems and climate change. Some of the highlights of the trip will include:

  • Hearing from lead scientists, academics, and industry experts, about the physical, biological, human dimensions of climate change and fisheries.
  • Exploring the history, legislation, and infrastructure surrounding Seattle’s commercial fishing industry, its interaction with tribal and small-scale fisheries, and the impacts of climate change on both.
  • Following Seattle’s sustainable seafood movement and learning about the strategies for promoting conservation, human health, and efficiency within the ocean to table supply chain.

Van Alen Climate Council have also partnered with University of Washington and commercial fisherman/sustainable seafood expert, Amy Grondin, who have helped to pull in preeminent experts across the fields of fisheries, food systems, and climate change, and will ensure that the participants are asking the right questions throughout the trip.

Tackling the ambitious exploration of food systems from their last trip to California’s Central Valley to their intensive three-day exploration in Seattle, Van Alen Climate Council recognizes risks posed by changing ocean conditions affect the health and livelihoods of billions of people who depend on the fish industry. Mounting urgency to address these challenges calls for out-of-the-box, future-oriented approaches to support sustainable fisheries by design.

Facebook Headquarters Building 21 Certified LEED Platinum

Facebook’s newest ground-up building, MPK 21, has been honored with a LEED Platinum Certification by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), earning 88 / 110 points, the highest of any Facebook project across global data centers and offices. Acting as a platform for change and influence, this LEED pursuit has been years in the making and was accomplished as a result of an immense amount of team work between Facebook and Gehry Partners, Kier + Wright, Level 10 Construction, Jensen, Forell/Elsesser Engineers, PAE Consulting, Cornerstone Earth Group and CMG.

Located in Menlo Park within the larger Facebook campus, the building’s recycled water system was an immense and imperative challenge in order to not only gain LEED credentials, but push the project to act as a sustainable milestone amongst new tech development. Facebook MPK21 is the first of its kind in the Menlo Park community to accomplish a successful Blackwater Treatment system, integrated building wide. The recycled water can then be used to flush toilets and irrigate the native and Mediterranean-climate rooftop species, reducing water use by millions of gallons a year, educating employees and amplifying the innovative climate change design solutions worldwide.